Internship Research

As part of our ongoing research projects on college internships, CCWT is regularly reviewing the literature on internships across national and disciplinary boundaries. A summary of the literature based on a 2017 review is available here, and on this webpage we provide some of the more recent and robust studies on internships in higher education. This is a work in progress and newly identified papers and reports will be continually added to this webpage.

Jackson, D., & Bridgstock, R. (2020). What actually works to enhance graduate employability? The relative value of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular learning and paid work. Higher Education, 1-17.

O’Connor, H., & Bodicoat, M. (2017). Exploitation or opportunity? Student perceptions of internships in enhancing employability skills. British Journal of Sociology of Education38(4), 435-449.

Bayerlein, L. (2020). The impact of prior work-experience on student learning outcomes in simulated internships. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 17(4), 4.

Knouse, S. B., Tanner, J. R., & Harris, E. W. (1999). The relation of college internships, college performance, and subsequent job opportunity. Journal of Employment Counseling, 36(1), 35-43.

Lucero, J. E., Gallego, S., Hedgepeth, C., & Sanders, D. (2019). Structure and Characteristics for Successful Outcomes: A Review of Community College Internships Programs. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 1-14.

McHugh, P. P. (2017). The impact of compensation, supervision and work design on internship efficacy: implications for educators, employers and prospective interns. Journal of Education and Work, 30(4), 367-382.

Parker III, E. T., Kilgo, C. A., Sheets, J. K. E., & Pascarella, E. T. (2016). The differential effects of internship participation on end-of-fourth-year GPA by demographic and institutional characteristics. Journal of College Student Development, 57(1), 104-109.

Silva, P., Lopes, B., Costa, M., Melo, A. I., Dias, G. P., Brito, E., & Seabra, D. (2018). The million-dollar question: can internships boost employment? Studies in Higher Education43(1), 2-21.

Silva, P., Lopes, B., Costa, M., Seabra, D., Melo, A. I., Brito, E., & Dias, G. P. (2016). Stairway to employment? Internships in higher education. Higher Education72(6), 703-721.

Strayhorn, T. L. (2020). Measuring the Influence of Internship Participation on Black Business Majors’ Academic Performance at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Journal of African American Studies, 1-13.

Taylor, M. S. (1988). Effects of college internships on individual participants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3), 393.

Wesley Routon, P., & Walker, J. K. (2019). College internships, tenure gaps, and student outcomes: a multiple-treatment matching approach. Education Economics27(4), 383-400.

Jackson, D. (2018). Developing graduate career readiness in Australia: shifting from extra-curricular internships to work-integrated learning. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning,19(1), 23-35.

Borello, L. J. (2020). Power, access, and policy: Reflections on the Women Center Internship Program. In: Lovett K. (Ed.), Diverse pedagogical approaches to experiential learning (pp. 181-192). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Finley, A., & McNair, T. (2013). Assessing underserved students’ engagement in high-impact practicesWashington, DC. Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Hora, M.T., Wolfgram, M. & Chen, Z. (2019). Closing the doors of opportunity: How financial,
sociocultural, and institutional barriers intersect to inhibit participation in college internships. WCER Working Paper No. 2019-8University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Nunley, J. M., Pugh, A., Romero, N., & Seals, R. A. (2016). College major, internship
experience, and employment opportunities: Estimates from a résumé audit. Labour Economics, 38, 37-46.

Sauder, M. H., Mudrick, M., Strassle, C. G., Maitoza, R., Malcarne, B., & Evans, B. (2019). What did you expect? Divergent perceptions among internship stakeholders. Journal of Experiential Education42(2), 105-120.

Urquía-Grande, E., & Estébanez, R. P. (2020). Bridging the gaps between higher education and the business world: internships in a faculty of economics and business. Education+ Training.

Hergert, M. (2009). Student perceptions of the value of internships in business education. American Journal of Business Education (AJBE)2(8), 9-14.

Hora, M. T., Parrott, E., & Her, P. (2020). How do students conceptualise the college internship experience? Towards a student-centered approach to designing and implementing internships. Journal of Education and Work, 1-19.

O’Connor, H., & Bodicoat, M. (2017). Exploitation or opportunity? Student perceptions of internships in enhancing employability skills. British Journal of Sociology of Education38(4), 435-449.

Ross, C. M., & Beggs, B. A. (2007). Campus recreational sports internships: A comparison of student and employer perspectives. Recreational Sports Journal31(1), 3-13.

Zehr, S. and Korte, R. (2020). Student internship experiences: learning about the workplace, Education + Training.

Arts & Media

Frenette, A. (2015). The Internship Divide: The Promise and Challenges of Internships in the Arts. Special Report. Bloomington, IN: Strategic National Arts Alumni Project.

Frenette, A. (2013). Making the intern economy: Role and career challenges of the music industry intern. Work and Occupations40(4), 364-397.

Martin, N. D., & Frenette, A. (2017). Lost in transition: College resources and the unequal early-career trajectories of arts alumni. American Behavioral Scientist, 61(12), 1487-1509.

Business & Management

Gault, J., Redington, J., & Schlager, T. (2000). Undergraduate business internships and career success: are they related? Journal of Marketing Education22(1), 45-53.

Knemeyer, A. M., & Murphy, P. R. (2002). Logistics internships: Employer and student
perspectives. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 32(2), 135-152.

Knouse, S. B., & Fontenot, G. (2008). Benefits of the business college internship: A research review. Journal of Employment Counseling45(2), 61-66.

Moghaddam, J. M. (2011). Perceived effectiveness of business internships: Student expectations, experiences, and personality traits. International Journal of Management, 28(4), 287-303.


Doel, S. (2009). Fostering student reflection during engineering internships. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning10(3), 163-177.

Garcia, R., & Puig, J. (2011). A model for improving the quality of student internship placements in engineering degrees. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC)4(1), 4-11.

Goller, M, Harteis, C, Gijbels, D, Donche, V. (2020). Engineering students’ learning during internships: Exploring the explanatory power of the job demands‐control‐support model. J Eng Educ.1– 18.

Information Technology & Computer Science

Carpenter, D. A. (2003). Meaningful information systems internships. Journal of Information Systems Education, 14(2), 201-209.

Tourism & Hospitality

Busby, G. (2003). Tourism degree internships: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Education and Training55(3), 319-334.

Ko, W. H. (2008). Training, satisfaction with internship programs, and confidence about future
careers among hospitality students: A case study of universities in Taiwan. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 7(4), 1-15.

Stansbie, P., Nash, R., & Chang, S. (2016). Linking internships and classroom learning: A case study examination of hospitality and tourism management students. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education19, 19-29.

Bayerlein, L. (2014). Curriculum innovation in undergraduate accounting programmes through “virtual internships.” Education+Training, 57(6), 673-684.

Black, G., & Bachman, V. (2007). Virtual internships in the business accounting curriculum: A feasibility study. Journal of Business Administration Online, 6(2), 1-15.

Conroy, R., & Khan, R. (2009). Integrating virtual internships into online classrooms. Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 15(2), 97-112.

Dotson, K. B., & Bian, H. (2013). Supervision on site: A critical factor in the online facilitated internship. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 14(2), 51-62.

Franks, P. C., & Oliver, G. C. (2012). Experiential learning and international collaboration opportunities: virtual internships. Library Review, 61(4), 272-285.

Goldsmith, L., & Martin, G. E. (2009). Developing and implementing an effective online educational leadership internship. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 4(1), n1.

Jeske, D. & Linehan, C. (2020). Mentoring and skill development in e-internships. Journal of Work-Applied Management.

Jeske, D., & Axtell, C. M. (2017). Effort and Reward Effects: Appreciation and Self-Rated Performance in e-Internships. Social Sciences, 6(4), 1-14.

Jeske, D. and Axtell, C.M. (2016), How to run successful e-internships: a case for organizational learning. Development and Learning in Organizations, 30(2), 18-21.

Jeske, D. & Axtell, C. (2013). e-Internships: prevalence, characteristics and role of student perspectives. Internet Research, 24(4), 457-473.

Kraft, C., Jeske, D. and Bayerlein, L. (2019). Seeking diversity? Consider virtual internships. Strategic HR Review, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 133-137.

Pike, P. D. (2015). Using a synchronous online teaching internship to develop pedagogical skills and explore teacher identity: A case study. Journal of Music, Technology & Education, 8(3), 227-242.

Ruggiero, D. & Boehm, J. (2016). Design and development of a learning design virtual internship program. International Review if Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4), 105-120.

Ward, L. S., & Killian, P. (2011). Virtual community internships in the classroom: Testing an intervention. Nurse educator, 36(1), 40-44.

Waters, S., & Russell, W. (2016). Virtually Ready? Pre-service teachers’ perceptions of a virtual internship experience. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 1(1), 1-23.