Internship Research

As part of our ongoing research projects on college internships, CCWT is regularly reviewing the literature on internships across national and disciplinary boundaries. A summary of the literature based on a 2022 review is available here, and on this webpage we provide some of the more recent and robust studies on internships in higher education. This is a work in progress and newly identified papers and reports will be continually added to this webpage.

Ebner, K., Soucek, R., Selenko, E. (2021). Perceived quality of internships and employability perceptions: The mediating role of career-entry worries. Education and Training, 63(4), 579-596.

Heyler, R., & Lee, D. (2014). The role of work experience in the future employability of higher education graduates. Higher Education Quarterly, 68(3), 348-372.

Jackson, D., & Bridgstock, R. (2020). What actually works to enhance graduate employability? The relative value of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular learning and paid work. Higher Education, 81, 723-739.

O’Connor, H., & Bodicoat, M. (2017). Exploitation or opportunity? Student perceptions of internships in enhancing employability skills. British Journal of Sociology of Education38(4), 435-449.

Shoenfelt, E. L., Stone, N. J., & Kottke, J. L. (2015). Internships: An established mechanism for increasing employability. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 6(1), 24-27.

Baert, S., Neyt, B. Siedler, T., Tobback, I., & Verhaest, D. (2021). Student internships and employment opportunities after graduation: A field experiment. Economics of Education Review, 83 (102141).

Bayerlein, L. (2020). The impact of prior work-experience on student learning outcomes in simulated internships. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 17(4), 4.

Binder, J. F., Baguely, T., Crook, C., & Miller, F. (2015). The academic value of internships: Benefits across disciplines and student backgrounds. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 73-82.

Bittmann, F., & Zorn, V.S. (2020). When choice excels obligation: About the effects of mandatory and voluntary internships on labour market outcomes for university graduates. Higher Education, 80, 75–93.

Bolli, T., Caves, K., & Oswald-Egg, M. E. (2021). Valuable experience: how university internships affect graduates’ income. Research in Higher Education, 62, 1198-1247.

Callanan, G., & Benzing, C. (2004). Assessing the role of internships in the career-oriented employment of graduating college students. Education + Training, 46(2), 82–89.

Crain, A. (2016). Understanding the impact of unpaid internships on college student career development and employment outcomes. NACE Foundation.

Hunt, W., & Scott, P. (2020). Paid and unpaid graduate internships: Prevalence, quality and motivations at six months after graduation. Studies in Higher Education, 45(2), 464-476.

Kilgo, C. A., Sheets, J. K. E., & Pascarella, E. T. (2015). The link between high-impact practices and student learning: Some longitudinal evidence. Higher Education, 69(4), 509-525.

Klein, M. & Weiss, F. (2011). Is forcing them worth the effort? Benefits of mandatory internships for graduates from diverse family backgrounds at labour market entry. Studies in Higher Education, 36(8), 969-987.

Knouse, S. B., Tanner, J. R., & Harris, E. W. (1999). The relation of college internships, college performance, and subsequent job opportunity. Journal of Employment Counseling, 36(1), 35-43.

Lucero, J. E., Gallego, S., Hedgepeth, C., & Sanders, D. (2019). Structure and characteristics for successful outcomes: A review of community college internships programs. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 45(2), 103-116.

Margaryan, S., Saniter, N., Schumann, M., & Siedler, T. (2020). Do internships pay off? The effects of student internships on earnings. Journal of Human Resources, 57(4), 1242-1275.

McHugh, P. P. (2017). The impact of compensation, supervision and work design on internship efficacy: Implications for educators, employers and prospective interns. Journal of Education and Work, 30(4), 367-382.

Moss-Pech, C. (2021). The career conveyor belt: How internships lead to unequal labor market outcomes among college graduates. Qualitative Sociology, 44(1), 77-102.

Nghia, T. L. H., & Duyen, N. T. M. (2019). Developing and validating a scale for evaluating internship-related learning outcomes. Higher Education, 77(1), 1-18.

Oberman, W., Hunt, I., Taylor, R. K., & Morrisette, S. (2021). Internships and occupational self-efficacy: Impact and gender differences. Journal of Education for Business, 96(7), 424-434.

Ocampo, A. C. G., Reyes, M. L., Chen, Y., Restubog, S. L. D., Chih, Y. Y., Chua-Garcia, L., & Guan, P. (2020). The role of internship participation and conscientiousness in developing career adaptability: A five wave growth mixture model analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 120(103426), 1-15.

Parker III, E. T., Kilgo, C. A., Sheets, J. K. E., & Pascarella, E. T. (2016). The differential effects of internship participation on end-of-fourth-year GPA by demographic and institutional characteristics. Journal of College Student Development, 57(1), 104-109.

Rigsby, JT., Addy, N., Herring, C., & Polledo, D. (2013). An examination of internships and job opportunities. Journal of Applied Business Research, 29(4), 1131–1143.

Rose, P. S., Teo, S. T., & Connell, J. (2014). Converting interns into regular employees: The role of intern-supervisor exchange. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84(2), 153-163.

Saniter, N., & Siedler, T. (2013). Door opener or waste of time? The effects of student internships on labor market outcomes. IZA Discussion Paper No. 8141. Bonn, Germany. Institute for the Study of Labor.

Silva, P., Lopes, B., Costa, M., Melo, A. I., Dias, G. P., Brito, E., & Seabra, D. (2018). The million-dollar question: Can internships boost employment? Studies in Higher Education43(1), 2-21.

Silva, P., Lopes, B., Costa, M., Seabra, D., Melo, A. I., Brito, E., & Dias, G. P. (2016). Stairway to employment? Internships in higher education. Higher Education72(6), 703-721.

Strayhorn, T. L. (2020). Measuring the Influence of Internship Participation on Black Business Majors’ Academic Performance at Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Journal of African American Studies, 24, 573-585.

Taylor, M. S. (1988). Effects of college internships on individual participants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3), 393-401.

Torpey-Saboe, N., Leigh, E. W., & Clayton, D. (2022). The power of work-based learning. Strada Education Network.

Wesley Routon, P., & Walker, J. K. (2019). College internships, tenure gaps, and student outcomes: a multiple-treatment matching approach. Education Economics27(4), 383-400.

Wolniak, G. C. & Engberg, M. E. (2019). Do “high-impact” college experiences affect early career outcomes? Review of Higher Education, 42(3), 825-858.

Briel, L., & Getzel, E. (2001). Internships in higher education: Promoting success for students with disabilities. Disability Studies Quarterly, 21(1), 1-12.

Daily, S. L. (2016). What happens before full-time employment? Internships as a mechanism of anticipatory socialization. Western Journal of Communication, 80(4), 453-480.

Di Meglio, G., Barge-Gil, A., Camiña, E., & Moreno, L. (2021). Knocking on employment’s door: Internships and job attainment. Higher Education, 83, 137-161.

Hora, M. T., Smolarek, B. B., Martin, K. N., & Scrivener, L. (2019). Exploring the situated and cultural aspects of communication in the professions: Implications for teaching, student employability, and equity in higher education. American Educational Research Journal, 56(6), 2221-2261.

Jackson, D. (2018). Developing graduate career readiness in Australia: Shifting from extra-curricular internships to work-integrated learning. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 19(1), 23-35.

Jung, J., & Lee, S. J. (2017). Impact of internship on job performance among university graduates in South Korea. International Journal of Chinese Education, 5(2), 250-284.

Lucero, J. E., Gallego, S., Hedgepeth, C., & Sanders, D. (2019). Structure and characteristics for successful outcomes: A review of community college internship programs. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 45(2), 103-116.

Maertz Jr, C. P., Stoeberl, P. A., & Marks, J. (2014). Building successful internships: lessons from the research for interns, schools, and employers. Career Development International, 19(1), 123-142.

Rogers, S. E., Miller, C. D., Flinchbaugh, C., Giddarie, M., & Barker, B. (2021). All internships are not created equal: Job design, satisfaction, and vocational development in paid and unpaid internships. Human Resource Management Review, 31(1), 100723.

Simons, L., Fehr, L., Blank, N., Connell, H., Georganas, D., Fernandez, D., & Peterson, V. (2012). Lessons learned from experiential learning: what do students learn from a practicum/internship? International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24(3), 325–334.

Allen, K., Quinn, J., Hollingworth, S., & Rose, A. (2013). Becoming employable students and ‘ideal’ creative workers: Exclusion and inequality in higher education work placements. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 34(3), 431-452.

Borello, L. J. (2020). Power, access, and policy: Reflections on the Women Center Internship Program. In: Lovett K. (Ed.), Diverse pedagogical approaches to experiential learning (pp. 181-192). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Finley, A., & McNair, T. (2013). Assessing underserved students’ engagement in high-impact practices Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Hora, M.T., Colston, J., Chen, Z., & Pasqualone, A. (2021). National Survey of College Internships (NSCI) 2021 Report: Insights into the prevalence, quality, and equitable access to internships in higher education. Center for Research on College-Workforce Transitions. University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Hora, M.T., Wolfgram, M. & Chen, Z. (2019). Closing the doors of opportunity: How financial, sociocultural, and institutional barriers intersect to inhibit participation in college internships. WCER Working Paper No. 2019-8University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Hora, M. T., Wolfgram, M., Chen, Z., & Lee, C. (2021). Closing the doors of opportunity: A field theoretic analysis of the prevalence and nature of obstacles to internships. Teachers College Record, 123(12), 180-210.

Wolfgram, M., & Ahrens, V. (2022).  One internship, two internships, three internships … more!’: exploring the culture of the multiple internship economy, Journal of Education and Work, 35(2), 139-153.

Silva, A. (2020). Unpaid internships and equality of opportunity: A pseudo-panel analysis of UN data. Applied Economics Letters, 28(15), 1288-1292.

Terriquez, V. (2015). Dreams delayed: Barriers to degree completion among undocumented community college students. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(8), 1302–1323.

Wolfgram, M., Vivona, B., & Akram, T. (2021). On the intersectional amplification of barriers to college internships: A comparative case study analysis. Harvard Educational Review, 91(4), 457-481.



Nunley, J. M., Pugh, A., Romero, N., & Seals, R. A. (2016). College major, internship
experience, and employment opportunities: Estimates from a résumé audit. Labour Economics, 38, 37-46.

Sauder, M. H., Mudrick, M., Strassle, C. G., Maitoza, R., Malcarne, B., & Evans, B. (2019). What did you expect? Divergent perceptions among internship stakeholders. Journal of Experiential Education42(2), 105-120.

Urquía-Grande, E., & Estébanez, R. P. (2020). Bridging the gaps between higher education and the business world: internships in a faculty of economics and business. Education+ Training, 63(3), 390-509.

Burgstahler, S., & Bellman, S. (2009). Differences in perceived benefits of internships for subgroups of students with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 31(3), 155-165.

D’abate, C. P., Youndt, M. A., & Wenzel, K. E. (2009). Making the most of an internship: An empirical study of internship satisfaction. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8(4), 453-480.

Gardner, P. (2010). A comparison of credit and non-credit internships in their expectations and the utilization of campus resources. Intern Bridge and the Collegiate Employment Research Institute, Michigan State University.

Green, B. P., Graybeal, P., & Madison, R. L. (2011). An exploratory study of the effect of professional internships on students’ perception of the importance of employment traits. Journal of Education for Business, 86(2), 100-110.

Hergert, M. (2009). Student perceptions of the value of internships in business education. American Journal of Business Education2(8), 9-14.

Hora, M. T., Parrott, E., & Her, P. (2020). How do students conceptualise the college internship experience? Towards a student-centered approach to designing and implementing internships. Journal of Education and Work, 33(1), 48-66.

Jacobson, J., & Shaed, L. R. (2018). Stringtern: Springboarding or stringing along young interns’ careers? Journal of Education and Work, 31(3), 320-337.

Leonard, P., Halford, S., & Bruce, K. (2016). ‘The new degree?’ Constructing internships in the third sector. Sociology, 50(2), 383–399.

O’Connor, H., & Bodicoat, M. (2017). Exploitation or opportunity? Student perceptions of internships in enhancing employability skills. British Journal of Sociology of Education38(4), 435-449.

Ramani, R., & McHugh, P. (2019). Student perceptions of the value of internships and job pursuit intent: A two-country examination. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2019(1), 10172.

Ross, C. M., & Beggs, B. A. (2007). Campus recreational sports internships: A comparison of student and employer perspectives. Recreational Sports Journal31(1), 3-13.

Thompson, M. N., Perez-Chavez, J., & Fetter, A. (2021). Internship experiences among college students attending an HBC: A longitudinal grounded theory exploration. Journal of Career Assessment, 29(4), 589-607.

Zehr, S. and Korte, R. (2020). Student internship experiences: learning about the workplace, Education + Training, 62(3), 311-324.

Zilvinskis, J., Gillis, J., & Smith, K. K. (2020). Unpaid versus paid internships: Group membership makes the difference. Journal of College Student Development, 61(4), 510-516.

Arts & Media

Frenette, A. (2015). The Internship Divide: The Promise and Challenges of Internships in the Arts. Special Report. Bloomington, IN: Strategic National Arts Alumni Project.

Frenette, A. (2013). Making the intern economy: Role and career challenges of the music industry intern. Work and Occupations40(4), 364-397.

Guarise, D. & Kostenblatt, J. (2018). The impact of unpaid internships on career success of liberal arts graduates. National Association of Colleges and Employers.

Martin, N. D., & Frenette, A. (2017). Lost in transition: College resources and the unequal early-career trajectories of arts alumni. American Behavioral Scientist, 61(12), 1487-1509.

Shade, L. R., & Jacobson, J. (2015). Hungry for the job: Gender, unpaid internships, and the creative industries. The Sociological Review, 63, 188-205.

Business & Management

Blau, G., & Lopez, A. B. (2020). Exploring correlates for paid versus unpaid internships or co-ops for graduating business students. Journal of Education for Business, 95(6), 393-401.

Bist, S. S., Mehta, N., Mehta, D., & Meghrajani, I. (2020). Employers perception regarding employability skills of management students undergoing internship. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 21(2), 145-161.

Gault, J., Redington, J., & Schlager, T. (2000). Undergraduate business internships and career success: are they related? Journal of Marketing Education22(1), 45-53.

Jackling, B., & Natoli, R. (2015). Employability skills of international accounting graduates: Internship providers’ perspectives. Education + Training, 57(7), 757-773.

Knemeyer, A. M., & Murphy, P. R. (2002). Logistics internships: Employer and student
perspectives. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 32(2), 135-152.

Knouse, S. B., & Fontenot, G. (2008). Benefits of the business college internship: A research review. Journal of Employment Counseling45(2), 61-66.

Moghaddam, J. M. (2011). Perceived effectiveness of business internships: Student expectations, experiences, and personality traits. International Journal of Management, 28(4), 287-303.

Pinto, L. H., & Pereira, P. C. (2019). ‘I wish to do an internship (abroad)’: Investigating the perceived employability of domestic and international business internships. Higher Education, 78(3), 443-461.

Sanahuja Vélez, G., & Ribes Giner, G. (2015). Effects of business internships on students, employers, and higher education institutions: A systematic review. Journal of Employment Counseling, 52(3), 121-130.


Doel, S. (2009). Fostering student reflection during engineering internships. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning10(3), 163-177.

Garcia, R., & Puig, J. (2011). A model for improving the quality of student internship placements in engineering degrees. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC)4(1), 4-11.

Goller, M, Harteis, C, Gijbels, D, Donche, V. (2020). Engineering students’ learning during internships: Exploring the explanatory power of the job demands-control-support model. Journal of Engineering Education, 109(2), 3017-324.

Information Technology & Computer Science

Carpenter, D. A. (2003). Meaningful information systems internships. Journal of Information Systems Education, 14(2), 201-209.

Chilas, S., Marks, A., & Galloway, L. (2015). Learning to labour: An evaluation of internships and employability in the ICT sector. New Technology, Work and Employment, 30(1), 1-15.

Galloway, L., Marks, A., & Chilas, S. (2014). The use of internships to foster employability, enterprise and entrepreneurship in the IT sector. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 21(3), 653-667.

Tourism & Hospitality

Barnes, J. (2009). Sports management and administration internships and students with disabilities: Responsibilities and practices for success. Quest, 61(2), 191-201.

Busby, G. (2003). Tourism degree internships: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Education and Training55(3), 319-334.

Chen, T.-L., Shen, C.-C., & Gosling, M. (2018). Does employability increase with internship satisfaction? Enhanced employability and internship satisfaction in a hospitality program. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 22, 88-99.

Ko, W. H. (2008). Training, satisfaction with internship programs, and confidence about future
careers among hospitality students: A case study of universities in Taiwan. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 7(4), 1-15.

Stansbie, P., Nash, R., & Chang, S. (2016). Linking internships and classroom learning: A case study examination of hospitality and tourism management students. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education19, 19-29.

Zopiatis, A., Papadopoulos, C., & Theofanous, Y. (2021). A systematic review of literature on hospitality internships. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 28, 100309.

AlGhamdi, R. A. (2022). Virtual internship during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exploring IT students satisfaction. Education and Training, 64(3), 329-346.

Baker, I., & Fitzpatrick, D. (2022). Student experiences in pre-COVID virtual internships: Integration, barriers, motivation challenges, supportive supervisors, and intern growth. American Journal of Distance Education, 36(2), 90-102.

Bayerlein, L. (2014). Curriculum innovation in undergraduate accounting programmes through “virtual internships.” Education+Training, 57(6), 673-684.

Bilsland, C., Nagy, H., & Smith, P. (2020). Virtual internships and work-integrated learning in hospitality and tourism in a post-COVID-19 world. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 21(4), 425-437.

Black, G., & Bachman, V. (2007). Virtual internships in the business accounting curriculum: A feasibility study. Journal of Business Administration Online, 6(2), 1-15.

Conroy, R., & Khan, R. (2009). Integrating virtual internships into online classrooms. Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 15(2), 97-112.

Dotson, K. B., & Bian, H. (2013). Supervision on site: A critical factor in the online facilitated internship. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 14(2), 51-62.

Franks, P. C., & Oliver, G. C. (2012). Experiential learning and international collaboration opportunities: virtual internships. Library Review, 61(4), 272-285.

Goldsmith, L., & Martin, G. E. (2009). Developing and implementing an effective online educational leadership internship. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 4(1), n1.

Irwin, A., Perkins, J., Hillari, L. L., & Wischerath, D. (2022). Is the future of internships online? An examination of stakeholder attitudes towards online internships. Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning, 12(4), 629-644.

Jeske, D. & Linehan, C. (2020). Mentoring and skill development in e-internships. Journal of Work-Applied Management, 12(2), 245-258.

Jeske, D., & Axtell, C. M. (2017). Effort and Reward Effects: Appreciation and Self-Rated Performance in e-Internships. Social Sciences, 6(4), 1-14.

Jeske, D. and Axtell, C.M. (2016), How to run successful e-internships: a case for organizational learning. Development and Learning in Organizations, 30(2), 18-21.

Jeske, D. & Axtell, C. (2013). e-Internships: prevalence, characteristics and role of student perspectives. Internet Research, 24(4), 457-473.

Klein, L. B., & Scott, C. L. (2021). Managing virtual internships during the covid-19 pandemic era: Implications for academic instructors and business leaders. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 21(7), 211-218.

Kraft, C., Jeske, D. and Bayerlein, L. (2019). Seeking diversity? Consider virtual internships. Strategic HR Review, 18(3), 133-137.

Pike, P. D. (2015). Using a synchronous online teaching internship to develop pedagogical skills and explore teacher identity: A case study. Journal of Music, Technology & Education, 8(3), 227-242.

Ruggiero, D. & Boehm, J. (2016). Design and development of a learning design virtual internship program. International Review if Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4), 105-120.

Theelen, H., Willems, M. C., van den Beemt, A., Conijn, R., & den Brok, P. (2020). Virtual internships in blended environments to prepare preservice teachers for the professional teaching context. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(1), 194-210.

Ward, L. S., & Killian, P. (2011). Virtual community internships in the classroom: Testing an intervention. Nurse educator, 36(1), 40-44.

Waters, S., & Russell, W. (2016). Virtually Ready? Pre-service teachers’ perceptions of a virtual internship experience. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 1(1), 1-23.

Gill, R. (2020). Graduate employability skills through online internships and projects during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Australian example. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability, 11(1), 146-158.